Paterno

The castle stands on a 985' high rock and is probably on the site of the Roman settlement of Hibla Gaelatis.  If this is the case, this was a stronghold during the Roman, Byzantine and Muslim periods.  However, the Arab geographer, Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Al-maqdisi, or Al-Muqaddasi (d.c.1000), stated that the inhabited area existed before the fortress was built during the tenth century AD.  This Arab castle is alleged to have surrendered to Robert Guisard in 1061 during the initial N-S march he made westwards around Mount Etna.  However, the source claimed for this fact, Geoffrey Malaterra, writing about 1099, states nothing of the sort.  All he records is that after leaving Centuripe, the Norman army encamped on Paterno plain and waited there for 8 days in the hope that the army of Emir Ibn Hamud from Enna would give battle.  They didn't and the army then marched on that city.  There is no indication that there was fighting in Paterno at all, or that there was a defensible castle there.  It is then claimed that the castle was rebuilt or refortified in 1072 Roger Hauteville (d.1101).  This was done to help surround Muslim Catania, before Roger's final assault on the city.

Some time after 1072 the castle was granted with Butera to Henry Vasto (d.1137), probably by Count Roger's widow, Adelaida 
(d.1118), the sister of Henry.  Consequently in 1115 Count Henry the son of Marquis Manfred made a charter as lord of Paterno within his fortress in favour of the Stratigos William.  This was witnessed by his barons who were obviously holding court in his castle of Paterno.  He was doing so again on 9 March 1130 when he made another grant in Butera.

Henry's son, 
Count Simon of Policastro (d.1156), was imprisoned for treason around 1154 and presumably lost the castle at that time.  A little earlier in 1154, Idrisi had simply described Paterno as a fortress (hisn).  There is no evidence that the castle passed to Count Simon's children, Manfred (d.bef.1160) or Roger Sclavus (d.1161+), although both seemed to have retained Butera.  Presumably Paterno remained with the king after 1154 and was not mentioned during the revolts of 1156, 1160 or 1161 when Butera was attacked.  In 1168 Count Henry of Montescaglioso demanded the county that Count Simon had once held in Sicily, ie the castles of Butera and Paterno, which had been in royal hands since.  This was refused and he was subsequently arrested for treason and blinded.

The castle then remained in the royal hands until 1194 when
the Emperor Henry VI (d.1197) granted it to Bartholomew Lucy (d.1200) who thereby became count of Paterno.  After Count Bartholomew's death in 1200 the castle was mentioned in both 1212 and 1252 as a royal possession.  The Emperor Frederick II (d.1250) was in residence in 1221 during his campaign against his rebel Muslim subjects.  Soon after 1252 King Manfred granted the castle to Galvano Lancia, who died with the king at Benevento in 1266.  It then passed to Manfred Maletta, before being confiscated in 1299 after his rebellion and regranted by King Frederick III (d.1337) to Hugh Ampuries. 

The castle seems to have been back in royal hands by the time Frederick died there on 25 June 1337.  On their marriage in 1302 he had granted it to his new queen, Eleanor Anjou of Naples, who lived in the castle until her death in 1341.  This was despite the fact that Frederick had otherwise given Paterno to the count of Squillace, whose family seem to have reclaimed the castle on the queen's death.  In 1363 Artale Alagona took possession of Paterno, but in 1398 the fortress was repossessed by the Crown, two years after it was simply described as ‘the tower' (turris).  Presumably this indicates that the castle bailey had disappeared by this time.  Paterno castle later became the home of Queen Bianca of Sicily (d.1441) after she was widowed in 1409.  In 1405 she had proclaimed the ‘Customs of the community of Paterno' from the castle.
  These were a collection of norms that regulated various aspects of the life of the country, such as the succession, some public exercises, the commerce of foodstuffs, the pasture, the condition of women of malfeasance and the public viability.  The original document is kept in the State Archives of Catania and carries, in addition to Bianca's signature, a medallion depicting the donjon of Paterno.  After her death the castle was used as a royal prison until sold to Count Guglielmo Raimondo Moncada of Adrano (1454-66).  His descendants retained the castle until 1818.

Description
The castle consists of a tall rectangular keep, 80'x60' and 112' high, with a wall thickness of up to 8½'.  Externally the ground floor is accessed via a modern staircase located on the north side where the ground beyond drops steeply away.  The door is covered by a single pilaster buttress at the NE corner of the tower.  This projects just 6' to the north.  At the opposite SE corner on the east face of the tower is an unusual plinth, similar in many ways to that on the possibly Byzantine keep at Aci.  Possibly this is the rebuilt remnant of another pilaster buttress.  There is also a garderobe exit on this front in a dip in the strata the tower stands upon.

Internally the tower is divided into five rooms, the main one being a large entrance hall with a barrel-vaulted roof, 2 single-lancet windows, 3 doorways into other chambers and a cistern in the middle.  A flow channel for rainwater
in the west wall originally ran to the roof.  Doorways to S&E lead to 2 rectangular chambers, that to the south having a twin splayed loop.  In the SE corner is a similar chamber with one similar loop, but with no door at this level.  In the NE corner is a chapel of St John the Baptist (San Giovanni Battista) which contains twelfth century wall paintings.  It is entered via an ogival doorway with an agnus dei carved into the keystone.  This consists of a rectangular room forming the nave (20'x13') with a semicircular apse cut into the thickness of the east wall.  The chapel, once equipped with seats, has a barrel vaulted ceiling with gold coloured wooden stars.  Along the walls are damaged tempera wall paintings (not frescos).  The figure of St Michael and the Pantocrator in the small apse are largely destroyed, while the Angel and the Virgin of the Annunciation as well as Sts John the Baptist and Nicholas are still extant.  Above the apse arch are the four symbols of the evangelists within medallions, flanking the Agnus Dei.  These have been linked with the painted ceilings of the Palatine Chapel in Palermo and the cathedral of Cefalu.  Further paintings are along the 3 other walls, one of which is thought to be St George.

Not far from the entrance door is a stone staircase in the 9' thick north wall.  At the top of the stairs the east doorway leads into a projecting rectangular guard turret. The south door leads to the first floor which is divided into two portions, the first reached on the east side being a large hall (63'x19½') covered with a pointed vault with holes that indicate the presence of inverted amphorae, used to lighten the weight of the masonry.  This is illuminated by four east facing mullioned limestone windows and is called the delle Armi or Representative or Parliament chamber and was equipped with a fireplace.  It was probably in this room that Queen Bianca of Navarre (d.1441), wife of King Martin I of Sicily (d.1409), confirmed the Customs of Paterno.  The other portion of the first floor consists of three rooms, each about 20' square.  They are probably the kitchen and lodgings for the castellan and the chancellery.  Beside the steps up from the basement another mural stair leads to the second floor.

The top floor is entered via a magnificent central gallery some 60'x20'.  This is called the Loggia and is illuminated by two large mullioned windows, one with a marble column the other with a lava one.  It has been suggested that these symbolise sunrise and sunset.  As the castle is located according to the cardinal points it has been suggested that this done deliberately for its astronomical value and that the tower was used as an astronomical observatory as the royal court, especially under the Emperor Frederick II (d.1250), was full of scientists, mathematicians and astronomers/astrologers ie. Michele Scoto, who was remembered by Dante in the Bolgia degli Indovini.  However, if this were so it would suggest that the tower was only built in the early 1200s, which is most likely well over a hundred years too late.  Whatever the case, this room is totally unique.

To N&S of the Loggia gallery are four rectangular rooms (20'x18') with the remains of chimneys and frescoes.  The frescoes probably date from the first half of the fourteenth century and suggest that the rooms were for accommodation.  The NE room also has a small attached chamber, which may have been a bedroom.  Small cupboards are also cut into the walls.  The roof was also accessed from here, as are two walkways formed in the cavities of the vault on the second floor.  These may have had a military function.

Many of the smaller windows in the tower have been replaced in limestone in modern times as too have most of the corner quoins.  For some windows red tile has been used for replacements and internally for repairs.  Comparison with old photographs show that these renewals are not necessary accurate.  Certainly the size of the ground floor east window has been increased dramatically.  The two ground floor loops to the south are unusually very deeply splayed externally and bear some comparison with the early work at Portchester which probably represents an ancient modification to an earlier structure.  The present limestone voussoirs of these windows at Paterno are slightly ogival.

The mass of the tower is built of local rubble lava, laid in even lines, almost giving a herringbone appearance.  This again could be a sign of an early origin.  The same herringbonesque masonry with lava quoins is found at Motta Sant'Anastasia and Adrano.




Why not join me here and at other Sicilian castles?  Information on this and other tours can be found at Scholarly Sojourns.


 

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