The Killing of Prince Llywelyn of Wales, 10 December 1282 

The title of this book will no doubt raise protests of: “But he was killed on the eleventh!”  Unfortunately the original evidence says otherwise and that is the point of this entire book - to look at the evidence and not the later hearsay which has now grown through oft repeated mantra to be accepted as venerable history.  This is the true story of the death of Prince Llywelyn, who did it, what the main actors’ motives were and, most importantly, why it was done in such a manner.

The final campaign of Prince Llywelyn ap Gruffydd has long been shrouded in mystery.  It is now possible to put together a plausible story of the last great army raised by a recognised native prince of Gwynedd. 

The purpose of this book is didactic, just as were the medieval chronicles which recorded ‘history' and from which we draw upon for evidence of so much of our ‘known' past.  It's function is intended to be the introduction of the reader to real historical research and our British history, rather than perpetuating what are some pretty illogical myths and storytelling.  On another level this book contains a multitude of original translations of many previously untranslated documents as well as those concerning the affiar which have been translated before.  These translations are re-examined and their content tested against the original text.  The findings are often surprising!  These help build up to the conclusion as printed in this booklet. 

It is hoped that the information contained in this book will be the foyer of the reader's deeper introduction to sourced history.  This, or real history as it might be known, consists of original documentation and it's placing in a valid chronology. 
By comparison, fantasy ‘history'  consists of unsubstantiated and usually erroneous Wikipedia style soundbytes and endless, but truly meaningless discussions over the hyperbole of modern commentators.  I know which version I far prefer, uncertain substance of demonstrably illogical myth, which may be entertaining, but is neither true, nor honest.

Within the book, told by translations of the original documents from Latin and French, the story of the killing of Prince Llywelyn of Wales unfolds — who did it, what the motives of the main actors in the tragedy were and, most importantly, why he was killed in such ‘a dishonourable manner’. 

Prologue                                                                                           1
Introduction                                                                                      4
The Rise and Fall of Prince Llywelyn ap Gruffydd                              5
The Primary Evidence                                                                      15
The Marcher Barons                                                                        19
John Lestrange V, 1253 to 1309                                                      21
Roger Lestrange, before 1245 to 1311                                             25
Peter Corbet, before 1240 to 1300                                                  32
Roger Mortimer of Chirk, before 1255 to 1326                                34
Robert Mortimer, May 1252 to April 1287                                       35
John Giffard, 1232 to 1299                                                              36
Reginald Fitz Peter, before 1214 to 1286                                         40
Grimbald Pauncefot, before 1240 to 1289                                        42
Roger Springhose, before 1233 to 1304                                           47
Ralph Basset of Drayton and Simon Basset of Sapecote                   49
Andrew Astley, before 1245 to 1300                                               51
The Welsh Barons
Sir Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn of Powys, before 1215 to 1289         53
The sons of Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn                                            64
Llywelyn Fychan, the Dragon of Chirk, before 1261 to 1282            65
Rhys ap Gruffydd, before 1240 to 1282                                           69
The Clerics
Bishop Einion of St Asaph, before 1240 to 1292                              74
Archbishop John Peckham of Canterbury                                         79
King Edward Plantagenet, 1239 to 1307                                         107
King Edward and Roger Mortimer (1231-82)                                 113
Peckham's Excommunication of Dafydd ap Gruffydd                       124
Roger Mortimer and Prince Llywelyn                                              127
Edmund Mortimer, between 1252 and 1283                                   132
The Early Primary Chronicle Sources                                              142
The Later Primary Chronicle Sources                                              155
The Poetry                                                                                      160
The Secondary Sources                                                                   164
Other Late Accounts                                                                        178
Primary Written Sources Concerning the Killing of Prince Llywelyn   179
Edmund Mortimer, between 1283 and 1304                                    185
Prince Roger Mortimer of Wales?                                                    189
Prince Llywelyn's Killer and Robert Mannyng                                   199
The Artistic Evidence for the Killing of Llywelyn                                203
The Battlefield                                                                                  204
Conclusion                                                                                       208
Appendix                                                                                         211

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Copyright©2014 Paul Martin Remfry

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